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    Super Circuit Illustration Notable Quotes & Sources
Four Parameters  
NASA Says... Evolution of the Safety Hinge





 NASA says,

"...for similar levels of heart rate and oxygen consumption, the magnitude of the biomechanical stimuli is greater with jumping on a trampoline than with running, a finding that might help identify acceleration parameters needed for the design of remedial procedures to avert deconditioning in persons exposed to weightlessness. “

The above statement is one of several made in a scientific study published in the Journal of Applied Physiology 49(5): 881-887, 1980, which confirms many of the statements previously made in The Miracles of Rebound Exercise, 1979. The research was performed by the Biomechanical Research Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, in cooperation with the Wenner-Gren Research laboratory, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

The four scientists, A, Bhattacharya, E. p, McCutcheon, E. Shvariz, and J, E. Greenleaf, secured the assistance of eight young men between the ages of 19 and 26 to each walk, jog, and run on a treadmill which was operated at four different speeds and then jump on a standard sized trampoline at four different heights to compare the difference between the two modes of exercise.

Although treadmill running had been studied many times before, the scientists found that "...measurements of the necessary variables have not been reported previously for trampoline exercise." The trampoline testing was conducted at least one week after the treadmill testing.

The six measurements that were taken on all eight of the subjects were:

1. A pulse before exercising.

2. A pulse immediately after exercising.

3. The amount of oxygen consumed while exercising,

4. The amount of G-force experienced at the ankle while exercising

5. The amount of G-force experienced at the lower-back while exercising,

6 The amount of G-force experienced at the forehead while exercising.

The pulse was obtained by a battery-powered electrocardiographic unit taped to the subject's body which transmitted its signals to a custom designed receiver which in turn recorded the information by electronically writing it on a chart.

The oxygen consumption was measured with a K-meter that the subject carried on his back.

The G-force experienced by the ankle, back and forehead of each of the university students was measured by small sensitive accelerometers which were placed in Plexiglas holders that were taped to the ankle, the small of the back, and the forehead.

After a thorough medical examination, the healthy students were issued a pair of shorts and new Nike running shoes to standardize the conditions to be measured. They were given familiarization sessions on laboratory procedures, treadmill running, and trampoline jumping to ensure the exercise techniques would be the same. Each student then walked or ran four different speeds on the treadmill with a five to ten minute rest period between runs while the scientist recorded their statistics and compared them with previous treadmill studies for accuracy.

A week later, these same athletes returned to bounce on a trampoline at four different heights with a five to ten minute rest period in between exercise sessions. Again the scientists recorded their statistics, only this time, they had no previous studies to compare them to since trampolining had not been previously studied. The only studies available were the preliminary studies which began in August of 1977 on passive restrained humans and animals exposed to increasing frequency and amplitude of vibration forces designed to increase heart rate and metabolic activity, "These responses measured by whole-body vibration resemble those during mild exercise and suggest that perhaps body vibration could be used in place of exercise for those who are ambulatory.


Following are some of the results revealed by this team of scientists from NASA:

1. The G-force measured at the ankle was always more than twice the G-force measured at the back and fore- head while running on a treadmill.

This helps to explain shin splints and knee problems, especially when the natural shock absorbing system of the body becomes so fatigued that it doesn't do its job correctly, thus throwing added unexpected forces on already tired muscles, ligaments, and tendons, forcing them beyond the point of rupture.

2. While jumping on a trampoline, the G-.force was almost the same at all three points, (ankle, back, forehead) and well below the rupture threshold of a normal healthy Individual.

This makes it possible to exercise the entire body knowing that there is no undue pressure applied to any part of the body such as the feet, ankles, and legs, and at the same time knowing that each part of the body is receiving the necessary environmental stresses it needs to become stronger cell by cell.

3. "The external work output at equivalent levels of oxygen uptake was significantly greater while trampolining than running. The greatest difference was about 68% ."

The efficient use of the vertical forces of acceleration and deceleration to produce internal loading by directly opposing the gravitational pull develops more biomechanical work with less energy expended, thus less oxygen used and less demand placed on the heart.

4. While trampolining, as long as the G-force remained below 4-Gs, the ratio of oxygen consumption compared to biomechani- cal conditioning was sometimes more than twice as efficient as treadmill running.

It is Important to note that although this experiment was performed on a trampoline where the participants were able to develop a G-force as high as 8-G's, the efficient use of energy was below 4-G's. People involved in rebound exercise on rebound units have been measured only as high as 3.5-G's, (United States Air Force, Dr. Ward Dean) so that any activity on a rebound unit is more efficient than treadmill running at any speed.

5. With the G-force the same as or greater than 4-G's II ...there was no significant difference in the oxygen uptake between the two regimens."

Even when a person is able to develop a force on the trampoline of more than 4- G's, although it is no more efficient as far as oxygen consumption than running, it is still much better on the lower extremities because all of the cells of the body are still below their rupture threshold providing a safe way to exercise.

6. " ...averting the deconditioning that occurs during the immobilization of bed rest or space flight, due to a lack of gravireceptor stimulation (in addition to other factors), requires an acceleration profile that can be delivered at a relatively low metabolic cost. .for equivalent metabolic cost, and acceleration profile from jumping will provide greater stimuli to gravireceptors."

This statement verifies the fact that rebound exercise is an excellent exercise for our senior citizens, those physically handicapped, those who are recuperating from an accident or injury, or anyone else who needs exercise but is hampered by a preexisting physical condition.




The Evolution of the Safety Hinge used exclusively on the Half-Fold ReboundAIR™

By Albert E. Carter, CEO, American Institute Of Reboundology, Inc.

I am not going to tell you the whole story of why I was in Hong Kong in 1985, as a consultant to the Hong Kong Government to teach 7,000 fireman and 28,000 policemen how to exercise using rebounders. But a week after my presentation, Hilton Cheon Leen, the Chairman of the Hong Kong Government summoned me into his office.

“We have accepted your concept of rebound exercise, but your rebounder takes up too much space when it is not being used.” He declared. He then introduced me to two government-employed mechanical engineers and gave us instructions to report back to him within a week with a folding rebounder.

needak hingeAnd that we did. The rebounder frame on the drawing had two off center hinges welded in four places and all six legs could be folded. We developed that folding rebounder and produced thousands of them to be used in Hong Kong.

After my three and a half months stay teaching rebound exercise to government employees, Chairman Cheon Leen presented me with a half fold rebounder and told me that I could produce it and sell it anyplace in the world except Hong Kong. That is the year I introduced the Half-Folding rebounder into the US. Although we sold thousands of them the first few years there were some problems.

needak ripI did not like that fact that if you did not pull the frame covers off the hinges before you folded it that the hinge would tear a hole right through the frame cover.

If you unfolded the unit on a shag carpet the hinge would grab the shag carpet making it impossible to lift the rebounder without ruining the carpet.

If the frame cover slipped over the hinge while unfolding it the hinge would grab the frame cover.

Also, it looked dangerous. I have never heard of anybody getting their fingers caught in the hinge, and it is a good thing because it could cause some real damage.

needak pinchAfter receiving numerous calls from people requesting a new frame cover because they didn’t pull it away from the hinge I decided that something had to be done. So I bought a few pieces of balsa wood and began to carve an acceptable hinge - one that would be friendly to the frame cover and any fingers that accidentally got in the way.

Not being a mechanical engineer myself, I took the new wooden hinge and the folding rebounder to the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Brigham Young University and asked them to help me. It was a good project for them and soon they had produced a prototype metal hinge. It had merit.

I took the hinge with me to my factory. The engineers actually got excited about it and with in a week had produced a hinge that did not have to be welded. It could be inserted into the steel frame and held in place by the clevis pins that connect the springs to the frame.

new hingeThen we tested it. We folded the frame, and then I put my finger right on top of the hinge and unfolded the unit. The unfolding hinge pushed my finger away!

We put the frame cover on the frame and folded the unit and it did not hurt the frame cover at all!

The next step was to produce the hinge. We found a casting factory that agreed to produce them for a price. So now I own the casts for the hinge. The casts are atsaftey hinge half the foundry, but the only folding rebounders that have the Safety Hinge are the ones with the Rebound Logo on them.

Buyer Beware:

Unfortunately, there are some factories who copied my original Half-Folding design and are still using the old fashioned, dangerous hinge I introduced to the United States back in 1985.



Notable Quotes and Sources

"…for similar levels of heart rate and oxygen consumption, the magnitude of the biomechanical stimuli is greater with jumping on a rebounder trampoline than with running, a finding that might help identify acceleration parameters needed for the design of remedial procedures to avert deconditioning in persons exposed to weightlessness." -N.A.S.A., Journal of Applied Physiology 49(5): 881-887

"The mini trampoline [rebounder] provides a convenient form of exercise with a major advantage being its apparent low level of trauma to the musculoskeletal system."  -Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 1990: 10; 401-408

"Exercise can be helpful in building and maintaining strong bones. Exercise that forces you to work against gravity – so called weight bearing exercises such as walking or jogging [and rebounding] are beneficial ...If you are at risk for osteoporosis, your doctor will most likely include exercise as part of your overall treatment program." -National Osteoporosis Foundation

"...over 1 million Americans will join a health club. Only after 2 months time, approximately 75% won't return again during their memberships.  In 1997, 43% of Americans say they made an effort to get regular physical activity/exercise."  -American Dietetic Association

Americans are eating per portion, on average:
93 more calories from salty snacks, such as potato chips, pretzels and popcorn.
49 more calories from soft drinks.
97 more calories from hamburgers.
68 more calories from French fries.
133 more calories from Mexican food, such as burritos, tacos, enchiladas.
The most surprising result is the large portion-size increases for food consumed at home -- a shift that indicates marked changes in eating behavior in general," the researchers reported.  -By Amy Cox, CNN, Thursday, January 23, 2003 Posted: 9:37 AM EST

"Americans' waistlines are keeping up with the portion increase trend. Nearly 60 percent of the country is overweight, with the numbers growing..."  -Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Trends Report

"The findings indicate that exercise on a miniature trampoline may provide a safe, adequate indoor exercise for normal and many cardiac patients of varied ages, if guidelines concerning rate of stepping and height of knee lifts are adhered to."  -Journal of Medical Science for Sport and Exercise, 1980; 12:118

"The treatment for dizziness depends upon its cause. …Many patients suffering from dizziness benefit from a program of exercise. Movement gives nerve cells in the brain stem a chance to develop ways of compensating for the conflicting signals that a malfunctioning vestibular system is sending to the brain. …Physical therapists can help a patient design a program that addresses specific problems involving balance and coordination. Nerve cells in the brain stem that are activated by the vestibular system are among the most adaptable cells in our bodies. A patient with an inner ear problem is trained to rely solely on input from her eyes and muscles in maintaining balance. As part of the training, she wears sunglasses to alter visual input and stands on a trampoline to alter input from leg muscles."  -The World Book Health and Medical Annual, 1995; 199-201

"A striking feature of many studies demonstrating a reduced coronary heart disease risk for more active individuals is that the greatest difference in risk is achieved between those people who do almost nothing and those who perform a moderate amount of exercise on a regular basis." - University of California, Irvine (UCI), Heart Disease Prevention Program

"The most recent recommendations advise people of all ages to include a minimum of 30 minutes of physical activity of moderate intensity on most, if not all, days of the week. It is also acknowledged that for most people, greater health benefits can be obtained by engaging in physical activity of more vigorous intensity or of longer duration. "Physical activity has numerous beneficial physiologic effects. Most widely appreciated are its effects on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems, but benefits on the functioning of metabolic, endocrine, and immune systems are also considerable."  - A Report of the Surgeon General, Executive Summary, July 1996, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

"An article published last year (1996) in Scientific American estimated that only about two percent of cancer deaths in the United States are caused by pollution—and that more cancer is caused by lack of exercise."


Super Circuit Illustration
"This study examines the aerobic benefits of regular circuit weight training and how it compares to a Super Circuit which incorporates running instead of rest intervals between each circuit station.

30 seconds of running between exercise stations, dramatically improved aerobic endurance (17.0%), reduced body fat percentages 10.9% to 17.1% in 12 weeks, and increased strength up to 26.0% in that same period.

Almost any aerobic devise should do: treadmills, exercise bikes, indoor joggers, even running in place or skipping rope.  Super Circuit layout incorporates the use of suitable aerobic exercise equipment,
such as the indoor jogger, placed in adjacent positions.  The exercise stations are arranged in a sequence in which upper and lower body muscle groups are conditioned alternately".  Aerobic intervals are used instead of rest intervals between strength stations.  -L. Gettman, Ph.D., Research Director, Dr. P. Ward and Dr. R.D. Hagan, Institute for Aerobics Research, Universal Gym, Inc.


Every exercise routine has four parameters that describe the routine and predict the results.  Those parameters are 1) Duration, 2) Intensity, 3) Frequency and 4) Mode.

Recommendations:  The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends that all able bodies be engaged in exercise routines that have a duration of 20 to 60 minutes, at a "moderate" aerobic intensity, 3 to 6 days a week (frequency), doing something you enjoy doing (mode).

Thousands of studies reviewed have shown how this combination, performed regularly, results in optimum wellness benefits such as body composition management, coronary artery disease prevention, insulin level control, improvements in energy or endurance and additional psychological benefits such as stress management and improved self image.

What does this mean for Rebound Exercise routines?    

First of all, it means we designed the "Keep on Rebounding!" follow-along video properly. We made sure the four parameters and recommendations were adhered to. For example, the duration of the routine on the video is 38 minutes long. The intensity for most individuals falls within the "moderate" range. That is to say, the routine is not so intense that one could no longer hold a conversation while following the routine. (This will vary according to the condition of the individual. In any case, listen to your body. The routine should be enjoyable!)

We recommend following the video at a frequency of at least 3 times a week. For additional weight loss benefits, one could follow the first two segments of the video 5 or 6 days a week. For those who are in top condition already, we recommend using our hand-held weights while following the video. This will "step up" the aerobic intensity while bolstering muscle tone improvements. Weights combined with Rebound Aerobics is called "Aerobic Resistive Rebounding"


¨This website in its entirety is for general information and educational purposes only. This information has not been evaluated by the FTC nor the FDA and is not meant to cure, treat, prevent disease, nor prescribe or to be used for diagnosis. It is important for you to know that not all of  these technologies and treatment protocols have  been evaluated by the FDA in the U.S. or the Health Protection Branch in Canada for safety and effectiveness.


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