REBOUND HEALTH BOUNCER
Low Impact, Aerobic, Whole-Body,
Lymphatic Health Bouncer
●Convenient & Effective Weight Loss & Stress Mgmt
●Full Low Impact Aerobic, Cardiovascular, & Strength
●Improved Balance & Coordination
●Improved Muscle & Skin Tone
●Improves Lymphatic Circulation
●Improves Immune Function
●Increased G-Force but Low Impact
●Excellent for Rehabilitation of Injured
●Easy use for Sedentary, Disabled or Elderly
●Highly Recommended or Endorsed* by Trainers,
Chiropractors, Doctors and Physical Therapists
*Prime Time TV's "The Doctors" and previous customers Anthony Robbins, Bob Hope,
Steve Jobs, Prime Time TV Shows: Biggest Loser, Today Show, Best Selling Fitness
Author Dr. Ann Louise Gittleman, Former President Ronald Reagan, Donna
Partow, Natalia Rose, Europe's newest fitness guru
Cristiano Verducci... and many more!
28 years of innovation by Al Carter, the world's greatest authority on rebound exercise created the first, the original - ReboundAIR™. Changing the world one bouncer at at time.
Recognizing that his family’s exceptionally good health, superior strength, and other benefits were connected to his Olympic history and research work on the trampoline, Carter set out early to discover the positive effects of rebounding on the human body.
His research resulted in the start of a new industry, the book "Rebound To Better Health", 1977, and the development of the first home-sized rebounder 'Dyna-Bound'. His second book The Miracles of Rebound Exercise, published in 1979, became a national Health and Fitness 1.3 million best-seller. In 1981, after years of researching the extraordinary benefits of rebound exercise, Al founded the National Institute of Reboundology and Health in Edmonds, WA.
How does Rebound Exercise benefit our bodies versus traditional exercise routines?
Studies described and documented in the book, The Ultimate Exercise for the New Millennium, by Al Carter proves regular rebounding can reduce your body fat, firm your arms, benefit the shape of your legs, hips and abdomen, improve your balance, stimulate your lymphatic system, protect your joints, strengthen your muscles and bones without the trauma of hitting a hard surface, provide an aerobic effect for your cardiopulmonary systems, revitalize your body when it's tired, and generally put you in a state of mental and physical wellness!
People who rebound find they are able to work longer, sleep better, and feel less tense and nervous. The effect is not just psychological, because the action of bouncing up and down against gravity effectively stimulates the lymphatic system without trauma to the musculoskeletal system. This unique discovery is central to the reasons Rebounding has become one of the most beneficial forms of exercise ever developed. Whether you are a seasoned athlete or a beginner, the ReBoundAIR is portable, compact and durable and allows you to set your own pace according to your physical condition.
“Rebound exercise is the most efficient, effective form of exercise yet devised by man.”
- The Miracles of Rebound Exercise; Carter, Albert E.; The National institute of Reboundology and Health, Inc.
Edmonds, Washington, 1979.
33 benefits to choose ReboundAIR™ Health Bouncer
There are at least 33 fascinating ways the beginner or the seasoned-athlete benefit from Rebound Exercise.
1. Rebounding provides an increased G-force (gravitational load), which benefits the body by strengthening the musculoskeletal systems.
2. Rebounding protects the joints from the chronic fatigue and impact delivered by exercising on hard surfaces.
3. Rebounding helps manage body composition and improves muscle-to-fat ratio. Rebound Exercise benefits you by giving you more control over these.
4. Rebounding benefits lymphatic circulation by stimulating the millions of one-way valves in the lymphatic system. This benefits the body's immune capacity for fighting current disease, destroying cancer cells, eliminating antigens and preventing future illness.
5. Rebounding circulates more oxygen to the tissues.
6. Rebounding establishes a better equilibrium between the oxygen required by the tissues and the oxygen made available.
7. Rebounding increases capacity for respiration.
8. Rebounding tends to reduce the height to which the arterial pressures rise during exertion.
9. Rebounding reduces time that blood pressure remains abnormal after intense activity.
10. Rebounding assists in the rehabilitation of existing heart problems. Rebound Exercise also benefits recovery from heart procedures, providing gentle, low impact circulation.
11. Rebounding increases the functional activity of the red bone marrow in the production of red blood cells.
12. Rebounding gradually improves resting metabolic rate so that more calories are burned even hours after exercise. Rebound Exercise benefits the post-exercise "Glycogen Replenishment" process.
13. Rebounding causes core muscles and large muscle groups to contract, resulting in the rhythmic compression of the veins and arteries, which more effectively moves fluids, both blood and lymphatic, through the body and back to the heart, lowering peripheral blood pressure and lightening the heart's load.
14. Rebounding decreases the volume of blood pooling in the veins of the cardiovascular system preventing chronic edema.
15. Rebounding encourages collateral circulation by increasing the capillary count in the muscles and decreasing the distance between the capillaries and the target cells.
16. Rebounding strengthens the heart and other muscles in the body so that they work more efficiently.
17. Rebounding gradually allows the resting heart to beat less often. Regular Rebound Exercise has been shown to benefit the heart rate, resulting in favorable decreases in resting heart rate.
18. Rebounding lowers circulating cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
19. Rebounding lowers low-density lipoprotein (bad) in the blood and increases high-density lipoprotein (good) holding off the incidence of coronary artery disease.
20. Rebounding promotes tissue repair.
21. Rebounding for longer than 20 minutes at a moderate intensity at least 3x per week increases the mitochondria count within the muscle cells, benefiting in total endurance.
22. Rebounding benefits the alkaline reserve of the body, which may be of significance in an emergency requiring prolonged effort.
23. Rebounding improves coordination between the propreoceptors in the joints, the transmission of nerve impulses to and from the brain, transmission of nerve impulses and responsiveness of the muscle fibers.
24. Rebounding improves the brain’s responsiveness to the vestibular apparatus within the inner ear, thus improving balance.
25. Rebounding offers relief from neck and back pains, headaches, and other pain caused by lack of exercise. Rebound Exercise has been shown to benefit body alignment and posture.
26. Rebounding enhances digestion and elimination processes.
27. Rebounding allows for deeper and easier relaxation and sleep.
28. Rebounding results in better mental performance, with keener learning processes.
29. Rebounding curtails fatigue and menstrual discomfort for women.
30. Rebounding minimizes the number of colds, allergies, digestive disturbances, and abdominal problems.
31. Rebounding tends to slow down atrophy in the aging process.
32. Rebounding is an effective modality by which the user gains a sense of control and an improved self image.
33. Rebounding is fun and enjoyable and provides maximum benefits with minimal efforts!
Rebounding allows you to set your own pace according to
your physical condition.
Intensity, airborne height and quantity are not as important as consistency - Bouncing once a day for 20 minutes is better than not bouncing at all.....
There is a multitude of exercise bounces from hardly moving
to vigorous bounces. Whether you are a seasoned athlete, disabled or beginner, the ReBoundAIR is portable, compact and durable and
allows you to set your own pace and effective routine
according to your physical condition.
Rebounding is one of the best forms of cellular and lymphatic exercise. Rebound exercise is so efficient in eustressing us and stimulating the lymph flow that
Dr. C. Samuel West calls it "Lymphocizing."
NASA says, "...for similar levels of heart rate and oxygen consumption, the magnitude of the biomechanical stimuli is greater with jumping on a trampoline than with running, a finding that might help identify acceleration
parameters needed for the design of remedial procedures to avert
deconditioning in persons exposed to weightlessness. “
Choose ReboundAIR™ - for the original "Al Carter" innovative patented Safety Hinge design, the Soft Bounce & Quiet Bounce technology, the 28 years of fine tuning research & development, the rigorous 'gorilla' testing and patented workmanship, and the ALL Component Lifetime Warranty, that bounces ReboundAIR™ to the top.
ReboundAIR is THE Gold Standard in Patented Designs and Workmanship. When Considering a Rebounder Mini Trampoline,
The Difference IS in the Details!
ReboundAIR™ has developed the BEST springs on the planet with larger, longer and stronger springs than competitor brands . They feature the highest caliber, safe, durable, Soft-Bounce springs available, to provide the perfect balance between the mat firmness, with just the right amount of jump response and joint-friendly soft-bounce resilience. ReboundAIR™ is aggressively tested at 300 lb user weight with a lifetime warranty that covers all users up to 400 lb.
Our wide-belly, 3 tier-tapered shaped springs creates an ideal bounce which promotes body alignment and prevents ankle pronation. At the bottom of the bounce, when G-Force resistance is greatest, other brands crumble, but the ReboundAIR™ is 'gorilla' tested for integrity and strength with improved materials, design and manufacturing technology producing equipment of virtual indestructibility. Competitor brands 'cave-in' or 'bottom out' under our rigorous testing regiment.
The most innovative, safe, durable, PATENTED hinges on the planet, Rounded and internally bolted to prevent spring cover tears that are so common with other brands. Read more about our revolutionary hinge design. Today, we confidently offer the "best built, most innovative rebounder on the planet"... that’s because the ReboundAIR™ passes all equipment gorilla tests.
The spring cover and Permatron™ mat, has double-sided, reinforced circumference bands and meticulous stitching and workmanship with new, safer spring-to-mat connection - "Little feet and big toe friendly" - with your safety in mind. Built to last decades of regular use. There is no need for a spring cover! The high caliber, wide belly springs are protected and integrated in the frame itself!
Today is the best time to invest in your health.
All Models are easy to store, tote and set up.
The Ultimate ReboundAIR™ Quarter-Fold design is the newest and most innovative yet. Convenient and lightweight, this revolutionary model is constructed with the latest in composite polymer materials used in aircraft and performance car engines. Stronger yet lighter than metal frames.
Like the original Half-Fold model, the legs unlock and fold, stowing perfectly into the frame. Both the 1/2-fold or the 1/4-fold frames fold to fit inside a custom carrying case.
The 1/4-fold model folds twice and fits onto the durable pull dolly for the ultimate in convenience and portability.
Health club quality at an in-home price. Excellent for demonstrations, traveling physical therapists or for those who want the state-of-the-art of Rebound Exercise equipment.
3 Major health benefits to choose ReboundAIR™ Bouncer
1● Improves Lymphatic Function Lymphatic System 101
- Why maintain the lymphatic system?
The Lymphatic System is a vital system of the body. It is interactive with every organ and is directly related to the immune function and efficiency. It is a protector and a defense mechanism against infection, viruses, bacteria, fungi and disease. It is comprised of fluid, vessels, ducts and various other organs and structures. It clears toxins, wastes, excess fluids, and infection from all tissues of the body through proper flow and drainage provided this essential system is functioning at its peak. Rebound exercise is so efficient in stimulating the lymph flow that Dr. C. Samuel West calls it "Lymphocizing." Rebound Exercise, the action of bouncing up and down against gravity, effectively stimulates the lymphatic system without trauma to the musculoskeletal system. This unique discovery is central to the reasons Rebounding has become one of the most beneficial forms of exercise ever developed.
Many people have badly congested lymphatics and don’t even know it. At this time in our country the lymphatic system is the most over-looked system of the human body. In Europe, stimulation of the lymph flow is the fourth most commonly prescribed medical treatment. Most U. S. healthcare practitioners seldom consider the lymphatic system’s critical role in preventing illness or its importance to the over all healing process. Some of the organs that are part of the lymphatic system are lymph nodes and lymph veins, the tonsils, adenoids, appendix and the spleen and you know what happens to those parts of the body whenever surgeons get close to them. Swollen glands, with which most of us are familiar, are symptomatic of blocked lymph nodes, which indicate a breakdown in the mechanical functioning of the lymphatic system.
Examples of congested lymphatics are:
Eczema & other skin conditions
Loss of Energy
Repetitive parasitic infections
High blood pressure
Low back pain
Loss of Energy
Ear or balance problems
The lymphatic system is also connected to every organ of the body, but its function is completely different from that of the cardiovascular system. It is the garbage collector, the internal vacuum cleaner sucking up metabolic garbage, toxins and excess fluid from the extracellular fluid of every organ. If this flow is impaired, the fluid becomes thick and toxic. The parts of the body that rely on it for elimination become less efficient and sluggish as they fill with their own waste. This otherwise life sustaining system now becomes a breeding ground for infection. When the fluid enters the bloodstream, as is part of the normal process, infection can now spread to any organ or part of the body. Many viruses, bacteria and parasites stay locked within the lymphatic system when these conditions are present. The result: physical ailments, degenerative disease, hastening of the aging process, even death!
An emunctory is any opening through which the body eliminates foreign matter from one part of the body to another. This is not only through the eliminative organs, such as the bowel, kidney or lung, as most would think, but also can be via a joint, lymph system, or skin, for example. When a foreign substance is present, the body’s first reflex is to expel or eliminate it. When this elimination is suppressed by any means such as by taking traditional drugs, medications or some therapies, some of the foreign matter gets suppressed (or pushed back into the system). Then, the very organisms or substances the body is intelligently attempting to eliminate become stored within the body and in any number of areas causing any number of disease symptoms. As this process occurs and elimination is blocked, the body then becomes toxic. When the toxins cannot be removed due to congestion or blockages, the degenerative disease process begin.
The lymphatic system is not connected up to the heart, so it has to rely upon some other activity to create the necessary pumping action it needs to circulate. The three most important methods of lymphatic circulation are external massage, muscle activity, and vigorous exercise.
The lymphatic system is filled with millions of one-way valves, which allows lymph fluid to flow unidirectional – usually upward away from gravity. Almost anything that can stimulate the movement of lymph fluid inside the lymph vessels of the system is healthy, but the most efficient way to stimulate the flow of lymph fluid is by rebounding. The up and down rhythmic bouncing causes all of the one-way valves to open and close simultaneously increasing lymph flow as much as fifteen times! The body gets stronger at the bottom of the bounce. The body machine is momentarily under an increased G-Force and responds to this increased demand by adapting at the cellular level. As health professionals, we refer to this phenomenon, in general, as "conditioned strength improvement." Rebounding does that.
2● Rebounding Eustresses the Body Stress Management 101
- What exactly is stress?
About fifty years ago, Dr. Hans Selye recognized the mind-body connection involved with stress, as all of his patients had similar physiological and psychological characteristics. Selye claims that it is not eustress or good stress that harms us but distress. Distress occurs when the body becomes chemically unbalanced for long periods of time creating an unhealthy internal environment for the cells of the body. All bodies except for those in a coma are constantly reacting to stress, -- the interaction between living things and their environment -- either eustress or distress. In fact, the whole purpose of all exercise programs are designed to cause the body to react to a eustressful situation so that the body becomes stronger, making it capable of surviving a distressful situation.
Each demand made on the body is unique in that there is a definite response: when we are cold, we shiver; when we are hot we perspire. In addition, a great muscular effort increases the demands upon the heart and vascular system. In most heavy exercise, the arterial pressure rises about 30 to 40 percent, which will increase blood flow by about an additional twofold. In other types of stress besides muscular exercise, a similar rise in pressure can also take place.
For instance, during extreme fright, the arterial pressure often rises to as high as double normal within a few seconds. This is called alarm reaction, and it provides a head of pressure that can immediately supply blood to any or all muscles of the body that might want to respond instantly to cause flight from danger. These stimulatory occurrences that cause the body to react are known as stressors. In and of themselves stressors are neither good nor bad, it is how the individual body reacts to the stressors. A well-balanced, healthy body will react to stressors in a eustressful manor, where an unhealthy body will react negatively in a distressful manor. But the accumulation of stressors, whether good or bad, if intense enough, will ultimately cause physical disorders.
In addition to nutrition and exercise, science is finding and recording the significant positive influences that meditation, prayer, love, relaxation, laughter, peace, massage, etc..., are having on our cell communication and whole-body organ-tissue coordination. Some call this the mind-body link, an area of pychosematics.
Rebound exercise, utilizes three natural sources of eustress to enhance the body’s ability to handle distress. By combining the vertical acceleration and deceleration forces of the change of velocity with the force of gravity, each cell is required to adjust to an environment of increased perceived gravitational pull. This natural, purposeful stimulation makes it possible for the body to function better in a one G force environment.
10 Ways Rebound Exercise Helps Change Distress to Eustress
1. Makes you feel less anxious - Distress can make you feel anxious which causes a chemical imbalance, and studies show that people feel less jittery and hyperactive following rebound exercise.
2. Relaxes you - One rebound exercise session generates between 90 and 120 minutes of relaxation response. This post-exercise euphoria improves your mood and leaves you feeling relaxed because your body is in homeostasis.
3. Increases alertness - Studies have shown that when large muscle groups repeatedly contract and relax as in yoga or rebounding, the brain receives a signal to release specific neurotransmitters, which in turn make you feel relaxed and more alert.
4. Makes you feel better about yourself - Think about those times when you’ve been rebounding regularly. Haven’t you felt better about yourself? That feeling of self-worth contributes to greater eustress.
5. Reduces depression - Some researchers believe rebounding can be more effective than medication for treating depression in some people.
6. Helps you sleep more restfully - Distress can make it difficult to get a good night’s sleep, but studies show that people who rebound regularly sleep better than those who don’t.
7. Increase energy - Distress can leave you tired and weary, because your body is spending excess energy trying to get you back to homeostasis, but even 10 minutes on the rebounder can go a long way to upping your energy level. And the old adage is true - the more energy you use, the more you seem to have.
8. Rids the body of distress-causing adrenaline and other hormones - Vigorous activities such as rebound jogging and the strength bounce are particularly effective.
9. Encourages a healthier diet - People who exercise regularly tend to eat more nutritious food. And it’s no secret that good nutrition helps your body move from distress to eustress.
10. Helps you take time for yourself - Whether you rebound alone or with a friend, it’s important to take time for yourself during distressful periods.
3● Your Cells Need Exercise! Cell Management 101
- Why cellular maintenence?
Approaching health and wellness on a cellular level, from a cell's point of view, we learn many amazing and valuable things about our bodies. Understanding basic "Cytology" will motivate you to modify four (4) areas of your life that are under your control. Yes, you can help your cells perform their functions well ...or not. Cells, performing their specific functions as intended, can heal the body faster, delay the aging process and achieve a healthy body composition, while remaining disease and pain free for longer durations... not to mention the energy by day and the deep sleep waiting for you at night.
While there are many cells in our body that perform different functions and have different internal structures they all have some basic function similarities. All our cells need water to survive and work and they all have 3 basic components. These components are the Nucleus, the Internal Structure and the Plasma Membrane. Even though they may perform different specific functions they all intake water, metabolize it and eject a waste product called nucleic acid. This waste product is then dealt with by the body's main cleaning systems; being the liver and the kidneys. This flow through system is very important and when something goes wrong; like the cell becoming clogged with toxins, problems begin to occur. G-Force Exercise encourages cellular waste reduction.
The two classifications of muscles, involuntary muscles and cardiac muscles are made up of cells that have much the same material. All muscle cells have the ability to contract - enhanced by some type of increased physical stimulation. Aerobic exercises are designed specifically for strengthening the cells of the heart and the cells of the walls of the arteries making them stronger and more elastic. Of the more than three hundred types of cells, all cells need exercise and each will react favorably in their own way.
~ People who exercise regularly find that their skin (the largest organ of the body) is stronger and suppler. Lack of exercise weakens bones of the skeletal system, while a vigorous exercise program causes the cells of the bones to request more bone material from the extracellular fluid and deposit it in the bone matrix, thus making the bones mineralized dense and strong.
~ The cells anti-gravity muscles (muscles of posture) are challenged with any kind of consistent body movement and the cells of the vestibular system in the inner ear adjusts to physical activity. Properly stimulated, the cells of the balancing mechanisms become more sensitive to any and all body movement. Better balance, coordination, and rhythm are the result. Although the connective tissue reacts differently than muscles and bones and possibly slower, it is now accepted that exercise will tighten and strengthen the ligaments, tendons and connective tissue of the body.
~ Vision is a talent and as such can be improved by exercise and proper stimulation. Vision therapists have been using trampolining very successfully to strengthen the cells of the eyes and improve vision for over forty years.
~ The way we learn, or gain knowledge is by stimulating the brain. Brain cells of the cerebellum are constantly monitoring the movements of all of the skeletal muscles. We now know that the brain increases in the number of synapses, or connections from one brain cell to another in people who are involved in an active exercise program.
Did you know that jumping up and down can actually improve the flow of interstitial fluid between the cells?
Interstitial fluid movement decreases localized swelling (lymphatic system stimulation) while circulating your body's defenses (mild immune system response), allowing access to problem areas by the most admirable, bio-specialized cells ever to call your body "home". Your immune system's ability to fight foreign intruders, disease, viruses, cancer, bacteria; combined with your lymphatic system's ability to prevent inflammation (edema) is crucial to your wellness.
White blood cells of the immune system move faster through the body – as much as fifteen times faster during and just after a vigorous exercise program. Not only that but they become more numerous –as much as three times normal in the blood stream after just a single minute of extremely hard exercise. Just like any other cell group of the body, white blood cells have the ability of becoming stronger individually and thus collectively becoming a stronger fighting force. Studies reveal that a regular exercise program will reduce your chance of cancer by as much as 40%! Aerobic exercise helps create better circulation, which affects every cellular function.
Immune system fitness and whole body wellness start with the "Healthy Cell Concept"
If just one of these 4 quadrants is neglected the result can be illness, discomfort, pain, decrease in productivity...
1) Cell Food - In order for the cells to operate, replicate, grow and repair, they need the amazing ingredients of Mother Nature's organic green foods. You are, quite literally, what you eat. Question is, do you consume people food or cell food? Your dietary content of cellular food could improve. Your cells are requesting for you to add Wheatgrass, Blue Green Micro Algae, Kelp, Bioflavonoids, Chlorophyll, Shelled Hempseed, Acerola Cherry and Rose Hips to your morning meal.
2) Cell Environment - Your cells are surrounded by fluid (called interstitial fluid). Since most of it is composed of water, it is safe to say that the purity, the PH and correct trace minerals available of consumed water are critical to your cell environment. The amount of water consumed is also just as important. Dehydration causes loss of some functions of the body. "A reduction of 4 to 5% in body water could result in a decline of up to 20% in overall work performance." -A.C. Guyton, MD. As we age, our body's ability to indicate thirst decreases. As a result, dizziness, some headaches, visual problems and even mental clarity are effected by the decrease in blood volume. You can improve your own Cell Environment by drinking plenty of PH perfect pure water.
3) Cell Communication - Your cells communicate and act in unison partly as a result of transmission between them and the brain. If transmission isn't clear then the cells and organs do not function optimally. Another form of intra-cell communication is the fascinating orchestration of elemental exchange around the cell membranes. Examples include: receptor sites, neurotransmitters, the 'sodium-potassium pump', the entire endocrine system (hormones released, stimulated/inhibited) the exchange of food, oxygen, elimination of waste and bi-products of caloric expenditure (breakdown of food sources to produce ATP and then the bi-products of the breakdown of the stored chemical energy within the ATP molecules to perform cellular activities). There are nutritional ways you could enhance and "condition" your cellular communication.
4) Cell Exercise - Benefits typically enjoyed as a result of regular exercise are the products of improvement within and around the cells. (Case in point: increased mitochondria count in response to increased cardiovascular demand) Some improvements occur not only for the muscle cells, but for just about every cell type in the body. For example, the amazing mechanisms that provide balance and coordination for all body movement (cerebellum, CNS, joint proprioceptors, inner ear) are also made of connected groups of specialized cells. Like muscle cells, these adapt to demands created by exercise. An exercise that places these cells in an unfamiliar environment, such as jumping and performing Rebound Aerobics rather than walking on solid ground, more effectively challenges these cells, leading to the conditioning of these cells within their specific function. This includes the creation of skill set memory and series of movement adjustments for the next time the same activity is performed. This process is what we refer to when describing the phenomenon of increased coordination, rhythm, timing, dexterity and kinesthetic awareness.
Rebounding is one of the best forms of cellular and lymphatic exercise. Rebound exercise is so efficient in eustressing us and stimulating the lymph flow that Dr. C. Samuel West calls it "Lymphocizing."
NASA says, "...for similar levels of heart rate and oxygen consumption, the magnitude of the biomechanical stimuli is greater with jumping on a trampoline than with running, a finding that might help identify acceleration parameters needed for the design of remedial procedures to avert deconditioning in persons exposed to weightlessness. “
The above statement is one of several made in a scientific study published in the Journal of Applied Physiology 49(5): 881-887, 1980, which confirms many of the statements previously made in The Miracles of Rebound Exercise, 1979. The research was performed by the Biomechanical Research Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, in cooperation with the Wenner-Gren Research laboratory, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.
¨This website in its entirety is for general information and educational purposes only. This information has not been evaluated by the FTC nor the FDA and is not meant to cure, treat, prevent disease, nor prescribe or to be used for diagnosis. It is important for you to know that not all of these technologies and treatment protocols have been evaluated by the FDA in the U.S. or the Health Protection Branch in Canada for safety and effectiveness.